Loaded words

Loaded words 

Loaded words -How To Win Every Argument It is possible to influence the outcome of a judgement by the deliberate use of prejudiced terms. When the words used are calculated to conjure up an attitude more favourable or more hostile than the unadorned facts would elicit, the fallacy used is that of loaded words.  HITLER SUMMONS […]

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Lapidem, argumentum ad

Lapidem, argumentum ad

Lapidem, argumentum ad -How To Win Every Argument Bishop Berkeley expressed the view that matter does not exist separately from the perception of it. When Boswell told Dr Johnson that this was an idea impossible to refute, the good doctor’s response was to kick against a stone so that his foot rebounded. ‘I refute it thus’, […]

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Irrelevant humour

Irrelevant humour

Irrelevant humour -How To Win Every Argument The fallacy of irrelevant humour is committed when jocular material irrelevant to the subject under review is introduced in order to divert attention away from the argument. My opponent’s position reminds me of a story… (Which will not remind the audience of the argument.) While humour entertains and enlivens […]

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Illicit process

Illicit process

Illicit process -How To Win Every Argument There is a rule about arguments which tells us that if a term in the conclusion refers to the whole of its class, then the evidence pointing to that conclusion must also have told us about the whole class. We cannot reach a conclusion about ‘all estate agents’, for […]

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Ignoratio elenchi

Ignoratio elenchi

Ignoratio elenchi -How To Win Every Argument Ignoratio elenchi is one of the oldest fallacies known to us, being first identified by Aristotle. When someone believes himself to be proving one thing, but succeeds in proving something else instead, he commits ignoratio elenchi. He not only argues beside the point, but directly to a different conclusion. […]

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The gambler's fallacy

The gambler’s fallacy

The gambler’s fallacy -How To Win Every Argument Few fallacies are more persistent in gambling circles than the belief that the next toss (or spin, or draw) will somehow be influenced by the last one. Gamblers, and others, are led into this fallacy by confusing the odds against a whole sequence with the odds against any […]

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